The olive is an exotic fruit crop in Texas. Olives are native to the Mediterranean Basin, which usually has mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers. In contrast, Texas sometimes has severe winter freezes that can kill olives to the ground. The best area in Texas to attempt commercial olive production is in the southwest region north of Laredo and southwest of San Antonio (known as the Winter Garden).
Many olive varieties have been tried in the state, with cold hardiness being the key selection factor. The table below lists the varieties that have exhibited better survival and production in Texas. Of the varieties listed, not all perform equally well at all locations. Cases of very different variety performance even among orchards of close proximity have been noted.